Monday, August 21, 2017

Bee Venom May Help Treat Bovine Mastitis

Bee venom decreases LPS-induced inflammatory responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017 Aug 17

The world dairy industry has long been challenged by bovine mastitis, an inflammatory disease, which causes economic loss due to decreased milk production and quality. Attempts have been made to prevent or treat this disease with multiple approaches, primarily through increased abuse of antibiotics, but effective natural solutions remain elusive. Bee venom (BV) contains a variety of peptides (e.g., melittin) and that shows multiple bioactivities including prevention of inflammation. Thus, in the current study, it was hypothesized that BV can reduce inflammation in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MAC-T).

To examine the hypothesis, cells were treated with LPS (1 μg/ml) to induce an inflammatory response and investigated anti-inflammatory effects of BV (2.5 and 5 μg/ml). The cellular mechanisms of BV against LPS-induced inflammation were also investigated. Results showed that BV can attenuate expression of an inflammatory protein, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Activation of NF-κB, an inflammatory transcription factor was significantly downregulated by BV in cells treated with LPS through de-phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Also, pretreatment of cells with BV attenuated LPS-induced production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (e.g., superoxide anion).

These results support our hypothesis that BV can decrease LPS-induced inflammatory responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells through inhibition of oxidative stress, NF-κB, ERK1/2 and COX-2 signaling.

Sunday, August 20, 2017

Australia and New Zealand Battle Over Manuka Honey


Kiwis launch big-money battle against Aussies over manuka honey

We’ve fought over the lamington and the pavlova, and now there’s a new food war brewing between Australia and New Zealand.

The Australian reported on what it called an “escalating and increasingly sour trans-Tasman trade dispute” over the naming rights on honey. New Zealand honey producers have applied to exclusively trademark the name ‘manuka’ in big markets including the US, the UK and China.

They argue that maunka is a Maori word and Australian producers are being opportunistic in trying to cash in on the success that Kiwi producers have had in marketing it. And it’s no little squabble – in Asia, manuka honey is in high demand because of its health properties and can sell for as much as $150 ($120) a kilo, according to The Australian‘s report...

Saturday, August 19, 2017

Honey, Propolis, and Royal Jelly: A Comprehensive Review of Their Biological Actions and Health Benefits

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017;2017:1259510

BACKGROUND:

There are several health benefits that honeybee products such as honey, propolis, and royal jelly claim toward various types of diseases in addition to being food.

SCOPE AND APPROACH:

In this paper, the effects of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on different metabolic diseases, cancers, and other diseases have been reviewed. The modes of actions of these products have also been illustrated for purposes of better understanding.

KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS:

An overview of honey, propolis, and royal jelly and their biological potentials was highlighted. The potential health benefits of honey, such as microbial inhibition, wound healing, and its effects on other diseases, are described. Propolis has been reported to have various health benefits related to gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, and gynecological, oral, and dermatological problems. Royal jelly is well known for its protective effects on reproductive health, neurodegenerative disorders, wound healing, and aging. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms of action of honey, propolis, and royal jelly on the abovementioned diseases and activities have not been not fully elucidated, and further research is warranted to explain their exact contributions.

Friday, August 18, 2017

Royal Jelly Boosts Wound Healing


The Royal Jelly Of Bees Is Great At Healing Wounds, And Now We Know Why

By Robin Andrews

When it comes to healing wounds, the things that always sound the most appropriate – and effective – always have fairly technical-sounding names. The US National Institutes for Health (NIH) cite a good few, including “collagen, silicon, chitosan, and hyaluronic acid” wound dressing polymers. They all sound rather sciencey, and are therefore probably quite good.

The technicality of the name of a wound-healing material, however, is not a good indicator of said effectiveness. This is fortunate, as the rather silly-sounding “royal jelly” is also pretty remarkable at healing wounds too, according to a new study in Scientific Reports...

Thursday, August 17, 2017

Korean Acacia Honey Shows Anti-H. pylori Activity

Isolation of Abscisic Acid from Korean Acacia Honey with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity
Abstract

Pharmacogn Mag. 2017 Jul;13(Suppl 2):S170-S173

BACKGROUND:

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide.

OBJECTIVE:

This study is aimed at evaluating the anti-H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti-H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay.

RESULTS:

Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36-72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori.

CONCLUSION:

Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori-induced infections.

SUMMARY:

The crude acacia honey was extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n-butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfraction. All the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pyloriAbscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori.

Wednesday, August 16, 2017

Honey, Bee Venom Nanofibers Exhibit Potent Antibacterial Activity

Apitherapeutics and phage-loaded nanofibers as wound dressings with enhanced wound healing and antibacterial activity

Nanomedicine (Lond). 2017 Aug 14

AIM:

Develop green wound dressings which exhibit enhanced wound-healing ability and potent antibacterial effects.

METHODS:

Honey, polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan nanofibers were electrospun and loaded with bee venom, propolis and/or bacteriophage against the multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and examined for their antibacterial, wound-healing ability and cytotoxicity.

RESULTS:

Among different formulations of nanofibers, honey, polyvinyl alcohol, chitosan-bee venom/bacteriophage exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity against all tested bacterial strains (Gram-positive and -negative strains) and achieved nearly complete killing of multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. In vivo testing revealed enhanced wound-healing results and cytotoxicity testing proved improved biocompatibility.

CONCLUSION:

The developed biocompatible nanofibers represent competitive wound-healing dressings with potent antibacterial and wound-healing activity.

Tuesday, August 15, 2017

Move Over, Mānuka? Firm Claims Stingless Bee Honey 'Better for Health and Environment'


By Cheryl Marie Tay, 15-Aug-2017

Honey from a stingless bee species native to the Philippines is being touted as superior to mānuka honey, with a Singapore firm marketing products made from the former...

Monday, August 14, 2017

Honey as Immune Booster for Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy

From the hive: Honey, a novel weapon against cancer
Eur J Med Chem. 2017 Aug 3. pii: S0223-5234(17)30586-X

Nowadays there is a folk medicine branch called apitherapy that aims to treat diseases with bee products, including honey. Honey has long been known for its medicinal and health promoting properties. It encloses numerous types of phytochemicals with high phenolic and flavonoid content, which contribute to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Varieties and variants of polyphenols in honey showed antiproliferative property against several types of cancer. This review focuses on the latest discoveries about the key role of honey in different stages of carcinogenesis, initiation, proliferation and progression, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as on its adjuvant effect in cancer therapy.

Although a possible application of honey and its active compounds as drugs against cancer is still far away from clinical practice, scientific results highlight that they could be used as immune booster for patients undergoing chemotherapy. They showed protective effects against the common exasperating and disabling side effects, mostly mucositis.

Sunday, August 13, 2017

Royal Jelly Suppresses Skin Pigmentation

The functional property of royal jelly 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid as a melanogenesis inhibitor

BMC Complement Altern Med. 2017 Aug 9;17(1):392

BACKGROUND:

It has been reported that royal jelly would reduce melanin synthesis and inhibit the expression of melanogensis related proteins and genes. In this study, we evaluate the anti-melanogenic and depigmenting activity of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) from royal jelly of Apis mellifera.

METHODS:

In this study, we assesses the 10-HDA whitening activity in comparison with the changes in the intracellular tyrosinase activity, melanin content and melanin production related protein levles in B16F1 melanoma cells after treating with 10-HDA. Furthermore, the skin whitening effect was evaluated by applying a cream product containing with 0.5%, 1% and 2% of 10-HDA onto the skin of mice (C57BL/6 J) for 3 week to observe the effect of DL*-values.

RESULTS:

The results showed that 10-HDA inhibited the MITF protein expression (IC50 0.86 mM) in B16F1 melanoma cells. Western blot analysis revealed that 10-HDA inhibited the activity of tyrosinase and the expression of tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1), TRP-2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in B16F1 melanoma cells. In addition, the 10-HDA was applied on the skin of mice show significantly increased the average skin-whitening index (L value).

CONCLUSIONS:

The validation data indicated the potential of 10-HDA for use in suppressing skin pigmentation. The 10-HDA is proposed as a candidate to inhibit melanogenesis, thus it could be developed as cosmetics skin care products.

Saturday, August 12, 2017

Engineered Honey Effective Against Wound Pathogen Biofilms

Use of an engineered honey to eradicate preformed biofilms of important wound pathogens: an in vitro study

J Wound Care. 2017 Aug 2;26(8):442-450

OBJECTIVE:

We previously reported on the ability of SurgihoneyRO (SHRO), an engineered honey, to prevent biofilm formation in vitro, but data were lacking regarding the activity against preformed biofilms. This study aims to assess whether SHRO has any antibacterial activity against mature, preformed biofilms and whether there is any evidence to support the observed clinical effectiveness when SHRO has been used anecdotally on acute and chronic wounds where biofilm is most likely present.

METHOD:

We tested the in vitro antibacterial activity of SHRO against the mature biofilms of 16 clinically relevant wound pathogens, in terms of impacts on biofilm seeding and biofilm biomass. The honey was serially double diluted from 1:3 down to 1:6144, and the lowest dilution achieving a statistically significant reduction in biomass of ≥50%, compared with untreated controls, was recorded.

RESULTS:

All 16 bacterial isolates were susceptible to SHRO, with reduced biofilm seeding observed for all, and percentage reductions ranging from 58% (ACI_C59) to 94.3% (MDR_B) for the strongest concentration of honey (1:3). Furthermore at this concentration, biofilm seeding of the test biofilm was reduced by 80-94.3% (when compared with the positive control) for 12/16 isolates. We additionally demonstrated that SHRO has antibiofilm impacts, with the 24 hour exposure resulting in disruption of the biofilm, reduced seeding and reduced biomass.

CONCLUSION:

SHRO is effective at reducing seeding of preformed biofilms of clinically important wound pathogens in vitro, and also has antibiofilm activity. This supports the anecdotal clinical data for antibiofilm efficacy, and supports the use of SHRO as a promising topical wound care agent.

Friday, August 11, 2017

Bracatinga Honeydew Honey a Natural Source of Bioaccessible Polyphenols



Effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds, minerals, and antioxidant capacity of Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys

Food Res Int. 2017 Sep;99(Pt 1):670-678

Honey is a product traditionally consumed due to its possible health benefits promoted by natural antioxidants. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on these compounds in honeys.

To improve the knowledge of this subject, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of simulated digestion on the stability of antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays), phenolic compounds (LC-ESI-MS/MS), and minerals (CE-DAD) in Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys.

The results show that the digestive system, mainly after duodenal digestion, significantly decreased the antioxidant capacity assessed by FRAP (410.3±18.3 to 564.7±8.4μmolFe+2100g-1), DPPH (30.1±0.8 to 33.9±1.4mgAAE100g-1), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays (58.3±2.6 to 142.0±1.6mgGAE100g-1) of this honey. However, phenolic compounds and minerals showed high stability and in some cases, significantly increased after the simulated digestion, presenting a bioaccessible fraction that ranged from 78.2±6.4 to 174.38±6.82% and 94.0±4.3 to 220.5±3.4%, respectively.

Therefore, these honey constituents may be considered highly bioaccessible and potentially bioavailable. Additionally, the correlation between the investigated parameters suggests that other honey constituents could also possibly affect antioxidant capacity of this honey.

In conclusion, the bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.) honeydew honey can be highlighted as an important natural source of bioaccessible polyphenols, besides presenting highly bioaccessible minerals in its composition, maintaining a satisfactory antioxidant capacity.

Thursday, August 10, 2017

Cuban Red Propolis and Brazilian Green Propolis May Help Treat Laryngeal Cancer

Mechanisms underlying the cytotoxic effect of propolis on human laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma cells

Nat Prod Res. 2017 Aug 8:1-7

Propolis has been used as a traditional remedy for centuries because of its beneficial effects, including anticancer properties.

The aim of this study was to compare the cytotoxic mechanism of Cuban red propolis (CP) and Brazilian green propolis (BP) on human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp-2) cells. Cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, fluorescence staining, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the expression of pro/anti-apoptotic genes were assessed. Cell viability and cytotoxic assays suggested a dose-dependent effect of CP and BP extracts with a possible association of intracellular reactive oxygen species production and decreased ΔΨm. Both samples induced apoptosis via activation of TP53, CASP3, BAX, P21 signalling, and downregulation of BCL2 and BCL-XL. CP exerted a higher cytotoxic effect than BP extract.

Our findings suggest further investigation of the main components of each propolis sample, what may lead to the development of strategies for the treatment of laryngeal cancer.

Wednesday, August 09, 2017

Honeydew Honey an Important Natural Source of Bioaccessible Polyphenols

Effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds, minerals, and antioxidant capacity of Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys

Food Res Int. 2017 Sep;99(Pt 1):670-678

Honey is a product traditionally consumed due to its possible health benefits promoted by natural antioxidants. However, few studies have evaluated the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on these compounds in honeys.

To improve the knowledge of this subject, the present study aimed to investigate the influence of simulated digestion on the stability of antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and Folin-Ciocalteu assays), phenolic compounds (LC-ESI-MS/MS), and minerals (CE-DAD) in Mimosa scabrella Bentham honeydew honeys. The results show that the digestive system, mainly after duodenal digestion, significantly decreased the antioxidant capacity assessed by FRAP (410.3±18.3 to 564.7±8.4μmolFe+2100g-1), DPPH (30.1±0.8 to 33.9±1.4mgAAE100g-1), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays (58.3±2.6 to 142.0±1.6mgGAE100g-1) of this honey. However, phenolic compounds and minerals showed high stability and in some cases, significantly increased after the simulated digestion, presenting a bioaccessible fraction that ranged from 78.2±6.4 to 174.38±6.82% and 94.0±4.3 to 220.5±3.4%, respectively.

Therefore, these honey constituents may be considered highly bioaccessible and potentially bioavailable. Additionally, the correlation between the investigated parameters suggests that other honey constituents could also possibly affect antioxidant capacity of this honey.

In conclusion, the bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Benth.) honeydew honey can be highlighted as an important natural source of bioaccessible polyphenols, besides presenting highly bioaccessible minerals in its composition, maintaining a satisfactory antioxidant capacity.

Tuesday, August 08, 2017

Vietnamese Stingless Bee Propolis May Help Treat Pancreatic Cancer


Chemical Constituents of Propolis from Vietnamese Trigona minor and Their Antiausterity Activity against the PANC-1 Human Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line

J Nat Prod. 2017 Aug 7

The ethanol extract of propolis from the Vietnamese stingless bee Trigona minor possessed potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells in nutrient-deprived medium, with a PC50 value of 14.0 μg/mL.

Chemical investigation of this extract led to the isolation of 15 cycloartane-type triterpenoids, including five new compounds (1-5), and a lanostane-type triterpenoid. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic analysis.

Among the isolated compounds, 23-hydroxyisomangiferolic acid B (5) and 27-hydroxyisomangiferolic acid (13) exhibited the most potent preferential cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under nutrition-deprived conditions, with PC50 values of 4.3 and 3.7 μM, respectively.

Monday, August 07, 2017

Signature Compounds of Manuka Honey - Leptosperin, Lepteridine and 2-Methoxyacetophenone

New research advances Manuka honey definition

Voxy, 8/2/2017

Comvita (NZX:CVT) announced today research supporting industry and government moves to improve the existing definition for Manuka honey. The research paper has been peer reviewed and published in the Journal of Food Chemistry. The research describes how unique signature compounds can be identified and used to profile genuine Manuka honey.

Researchers examined a range of nectar and honey samples, identifying and measuring several potential honey marker compounds. The compounds were evaluated based on their uniqueness to Manuka, relative abundance, stability, and potential for adulteration. The most significant signature compounds of Manuka honey were found to be leptosperin, lepteridine and 2-methoxyacetophenone...

Sunday, August 06, 2017

Honey, Royal Jelly Component Defensin-1 Boosts Wound Healing

Bee-derived antibacterial peptide, defensin-1, promotes wound re-epithelialisation in vitro and in vivo

Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 4;7(1):7340

Royal jelly (RJ) has successfully been used as a remedy in wound healing. RJ has multiple effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, in various cell types. However, no component(s) (other than antibacterial) have been identified in RJ-accelerated wound healing.

In this study, we demonstrate that keratinocytes are responsible for the elevated production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) after incubation with a water extract of RJ. Furthermore, the keratinocyte migration and wound closure rates were significantly increased in the presence of RJ extract. MMP-9 production was reduced significantly following proteinase K treatment but remained stable after heat treatment, indicating that active component(s) have a proteinous character.

To identify the component responsible for inducing MMP-9 production, RJ extract was fractionated using C18 RP-HPLC. In fractions exhibiting stimulatory activity, we immunochemically detected the bee-derived antibacterial peptide, defensin-1. Defensin-1 was cloned, and recombinant peptide was produced in a baculoviral expression system. Defensin-1 stimulated MMP-9 secretion from keratinocytes and increased keratinocyte migration and wound closure in vitro. In addition, defensin-1 promoted re-epithelisation and wound closure in uninfected excision wounds.

These data indisputably demonstrate that defensin-1, a regular but concentration variable factor found in honey and RJ, contributes to cutaneous wound closure by enhancing keratinocyte migration and MMP-9 secretion.

Saturday, August 05, 2017

Bee Venom May Help Prevent Cancer

Anti-mutagenic and synergistic cytotoxic effect of cisplatin and Honey Bee venom on 4T1 invasive mammary carcinoma cell line

Introduction: Honey Bee Venom (HBV) has various biological activities such as inhibitory effect on several types of cancer. Cisplatin is an old and potent drug to treat the most of cancer. Our aims in this study were determination of the anti-mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of HBV on mammary carcinoma.

Methods: 4T1 cell line was cultured in RPMI-1640 with 10% fetal bovine serum, at 37°C in humidified CO2-incubator. The cell viabilities were examined by MTT assay. HBV was screened for its anti-mutagenic activity against sodium azide by Ames test. The results were assessed by SPSS software and one-way ANOVA considering P < 0.05 level of significant. Results: The result showed that 6 ug/ml HBV, 20 ug/ml cisplatin and 6 ug/ml HBV with 10 ug/ml cisplatin can induce an approximately 50% 4T1 cell death. 7 mg/ml HBV with the inhibition of 62.76% sodium azide showed high potential in decreasing the mutagenic agents.

Conclusions: MTT assay demonstrated that HBV and cisplatin can cause cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The cytotoxic effect of cisplatin is also promoted by HBV. Ames test results indicated that HBV can inhibit mutagenic agent. Anti-mutagenic activity of HBV was increased significantly in presence of S9. Our findings reveal that HBV has cancer preventing effects.

Friday, August 04, 2017

High Levels of Methylglyoxal Found in Nordic Mire and Forest Honeys

Screening bioactivity and bioactive constituents of Nordic unifloral honeys

Food Chem. 2017 Dec 15;237:214-224

The objective of this study was to screen the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of thirty nine honey samples from Finland, Sweden, Norway and Denmark. Their physicochemical properties were analysed, antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay and antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus was assessed by microdilution assay.

The honey samples obtained were buckwheat, caraway, clover, dandelion, fireweed, heather, lime tree, lingonberry, rape, raspberry, sweet clover, willow, mire, honeydew and polyfloral. Eleven honey samples showed high antioxidant activity. With 15% honey dilution, three unifloral honeys had over 85% inhibition against growth of P. aeruginosa and ten honey samples against S. aureus.

The buckwheat, raspberry and honeydew honeys showed the highest antibacterial and antioxidant activity. An unexpectedly high amount of methylglyoxal was found in mire and forest honeys. Some phenolic compounds are shown to be plant species-specific floral markers due to their appearance in specific unifloral honey samples.

Thursday, August 03, 2017

Royal Jelly Has Anti-Inflammatory Action

Royal Jelly Inhibits the Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Activated Macrophages

Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Volume 68, 2004 - Issue 1

In this study, we have examined the anti-inflammatory actions of royal jelly (RJ) at a cytokine level. When supernatants of RJ suspensions were added to a culture of mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide and IFN-γ, the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1, was efficiently inhibited in a dose-dependent manner without having cytotoxic effects on macrophages. This suggests that RJ contains factor(s) responsible for the suppression of proinflammatory cytokine secretion. We named the factor for honeybees RJ-derived anti-inflammatory factor (HBRJ-AIF), and further investigated the molecular aspects of it. Size fractionation study showed that HBRJ-AIF is composed of substances of low (<5 and="" high="" kda="">30 kDa) molecular weights, with the former being a major component. Chromatographic analysis showed that MRJP3 is one candidate for the HBRJ-AIF with high molecular weights. Thus, our results suggest that RJ has anti-inflammatory actions through inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production by activated macrophages.

Wednesday, August 02, 2017

Honey Helps Treat Vaginitis

Comparison of vaginal ointment of honey and clotrimazole for treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis: A random clinical trial

J Mycol Med. 2017 Jul 28. pii: S1156-5233(17)30039-2

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the most prevalent vaginitis in women, accounting for 10 million medical referrals a year. Vaginal clotrimazole is a drug of choice for VVC treatment. However, increased drug resistance to this microorganism has led to an interest in naturally derived antifungal drugs. This study was conducted to compare honey vaginal ointment and clotrimazole vaginal ointment for VVC treatment.

METHODS:

Eighty women diagnosed with VVC were assigned to two groups for honey ointment and clotrimazole ointment treatment using a simple randomization rule. The ointments were applied at night for seven days. The disease symptoms including inflammation, vaginal discharge, and irritation at baseline in the fourth and eighth days of treatment were examined and compared between the two groups. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20 with the Friedman test, Chi-square test, and independent t-test. P<0 .05="" as="" considered="" p="" significance.="" the="" was="">
RESULTS:

The two groups were similar for inflammation severity, irritation, and discharge at baseline. In both the groups, the symptoms disappeared after treatment. On the eighth day of treatment, there was a significant difference in inflammation and vaginal discharge between the two groups. Inflammation (P = 0.002) and vaginal discharge (P = 0.003) recovered better in the clotrimazole group. But there was no significant difference in irritation severity and satisfaction with treatment between the two groups. In the two groups, no side effects were reported.

CONCLUSION:

Honey contributes to treating VVC. Thanks to the popular positive attitudes of honey, its availability, no need for sterility, and its cost-effectiveness, it is a choice of treatment for VVC.

Tuesday, August 01, 2017

Propolis Protects Liver From Damage

Effect of Saudi Propolis on Hepatitis Male Rats

 J Nutr Food Sci 2017, 7:4

This study was conducted to evaluate the benefits of the Saudi gum (propolis) by reduction of the toxic substances in rats that target the liver and affect its performance. The chemical components of propolis were identified.

The study included 42 Albino male rat of a healthy weight ranged from 255-287 g, and they were divided into six equal groups. The first group was fed the standard diet (negative control group), while the other 35 rats were injected with carbon tetrachloride under the skin (1.5 ml/ kg) in order to infect them with acute hepatitis.

After 24 h, the groups of infected rats were divided and the second group (positive control group) was also fed a standard meal, while the other groups infected which were the third, fourth, fifth and sixth were fed on a diet with access to a standard concentration of Saudi bee gum of 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, through the mouth for 4 consecutive weeks.

The results showed that propolis contains 41 compounds and out of these 17 compounds have been identified. Volatile oil was in proportion of 20.37%, aliphatic acids in 16.87%, and esters in 15.48% and alcohols in 13.98%. The results showed a significant improvement in the biochemical parameters in hepatitis rats which were treated with propolis. Results also showed that propolis increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver of hepatitis rats treated with propolis.

The study concluded that propolis plays an effective role in protecting the liver from damage and inflammation that can be caused by the components of antioxidation and inflammation.

Monday, July 31, 2017

Propolis Material Boosts Wound Healing

Nanostructured lipid systems modified with waste material of propolis for wound healing: Design, in vitro and in vivo evaluation

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2017 Jul 10;158:441-452

Propolis, a natural compound that can accelerate the wound healing process, is mainly used as ethanolic extract. The extractive solution may also be obtained from the propolis by-product (BP), transforming this waste material into a pharmaceutical active ingredient.

Even if propolis does not show toxicity, when used as an extract over harmed skin or mucosa, the present ethanol content may be harmful to the tissue recovering, besides hindering the drug release.

This study describes the development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) as topical propolis delivery systems and the investigation of their in vitro and in vivo activities.

The extracts were evaluated to guarantee their quality, and the lipid dispersions were characterized with respect to morphology (cryo-TEM), size and diffractometry (X-ray) properties. The occlusive capacity of formulations was also evaluated by an in vitro technique, which determines the occlusion factor. The drug entrapment efficiency (EE), as well as the in vitro drug release profile from the nanoparticulate systems was investigated as well. The size analysis performed through 90 days was favorable to a topical administration and the polydispersity index, though not ideal in all cases due to the high content of resins and gums from the extracts, were relatively stable for the SLN. The propolis extract contributes to the occlusive potential of the formulations.

The human immortalized keratinocytes presented good cell viability when tested with both extracts (propolis and BP) freely or entrapped in the systems. SLN modified with propolis material provided an acceleration of the in vivo wound healing process.

Sunday, July 30, 2017

Bees Create Hemp Propolis

PR WEB, 7/30/2017

Although cannabis honey was not a possibility, French did make an amazing and unexpected discovery during this experiment. He found that with some special equipment, he could encourage the bees to collect the resins from the hemp and store them in the hive. Bees used these resins to create propolis – which is a powerful antimicrobial compound used to sterilize and repair the hive. For humans and animals, it can be used to heal wounds and fight certain diseases and bacteria.

Saturday, July 29, 2017

Bee Venom Acupuncture May Help Treat Parkinson's Disease

Efficacy of Combined Treatment with Acupuncture and Bee Venom Acupuncture As an Adjunctive Treatment for Parkinson's Disease

J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Jul 28

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of acupuncture and bee venom acupuncture (BVA) for idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) through a sham-controlled trial. We also investigated whether there is a sustained therapeutic effect by completing follow-up assessments after treatment completion.

DESIGN:

A single center, double-blind, three-armed randomized controlled trial.

SETTINGS/LOCATION:

This study was performed at a university hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea.

SUBJECTS:

Seventy-three (73) patients with IPD were the subjects. They were randomly assigned to the active treatment group, sham treatment group, or conventional treatment group.

INTERVENTIONS:

The active treatment group received acupuncture and BVA and the sham group received sham acupuncture and normal saline injections, twice a week for 12 weeks. The conventional treatment group maintained anti-parkinsonian drugs without additional intervention.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) part II and part III score, postural instability and gait disturbance (PIGD) score, gait speed and number, Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and postural stability at baseline and at 12, 16, and 20 weeks.

RESULTS:

Sixty-three (63) patients provided a complete data of assessments, including a final follow-up. After 12 weeks of treatment, a significant difference was observed between the active treatment group and the conventional treatment group. After the end of the treatment, the treatment effects were maintained significantly in the active treatment group only.

CONCLUSIONS:

It is suggested that the combined treatment of acupuncture and BVA might be safe and useful adjunctive treatment for patients with IPD.

Friday, July 28, 2017

Stingless Bee Geopropolis Shows Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Antiproliferative Activity

Melipona mondury produces a geopropolis with antioxidant, antibacterial and antiproliferative activities

An Acad Bras Cienc. 2017 Jul 20:0

Geopropolis is a special type of propolis produced by stingless bees. Several pharmacological properties have been described for different types of geopropolis, but there have been no previous studies of the geopropolis from Melipona mondury.

In this study, we investigated the antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of M. mondury geopropolis, and determined its chemical profile. The antioxidant activity was determined using in vitro ABTS·+, ·DPPH, and β-carotene/linoleic acid co-oxidation methods. The antibacterial activity was determined using a microdilution method with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. The antiproliferative effect was determined in tumor cell lines using the Alamar Blue assay. The chemical profile was obtained using UHPLC-MS and UHPLC-MS/MS.

The butanolic fraction had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds and more potent antioxidant properties in all assays. This fraction also had bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects against all bacterial strains at low concentrations, especially S. aureus. The hexane fraction had the highest antiproliferative potential, with IC50 values ranging from 24.2 to 46.6 µg/mL in HL-60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cell) and K562 (human chronic myelocytic leukemia cell), respectively. Preliminary chemical analysis indicates the presence of terpenes and gallic acid in the geopropolis.

Our results indicate the therapeutic potential of geopropolis from M. mondury against inflammatory, oxidative, infectious, and neoplastic diseases.

Thursday, July 27, 2017

Honey Flavonoids Could Effect Drug Uptake

Honey flavonoids inhibit hOATP2B1 and hOATP1A2 transporters and hOATP-mediated rosuvastatin cell uptake in vitro

Xenobiotica. 2017 Jul 26:1-34

1. Some flavonoids contained in the common diet have been shown to interact with important membrane uptake transporters, including organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 expressed in the apical membrane of human enterocytes may significantly contribute to the intestinal absorption of drugs, e.g. statins. This study is aimed at an evaluation of the inhibitory potency of selected honey flavonoids (namely galangin, myricetin, pinocembrin, pinobanksin, chrysin, fisetin) towards hOATP2B1 and hOATP1A2 as well as at examining their effect on the cellular uptake of the known OATP substrate rosuvastatin.

2. Cell lines overexpressing the hOATP2B1 or hOATP1A2 transporter were employed as in vitro model to determine the inhibitory potency of the flavonoids towards the OATPs.

3. Chrysin, galangin and pinocembrin were found to inhibit both hOATP2B1 and hOATP1A2 in lower or comparable concentrations as the known flavonoid OATP inhibitor quercetin. Galangin, chrysin and pinocembrin effectively inhibited rosuvastatin uptake by hOATP2B1 with IC50 ∼ 1-10 μM. The inhibition of the hOATP1A2-mediated transport of rosuvastatin by these flavonoids was weaker.

4. The found data indicate that several of the tested natural compounds could potentially affect drug cellular uptake by hOATP2B1 and/or hOATP1A2 at relative low concentrations, a finding which suggests their potential for food-drug interactions.

Wednesday, July 26, 2017

Propolis Throat Spray

Guatemala Times

This throat spray is naturally made of extracted propolis that comes from bees. What makes it, even more, greater is that it is absolutely made of high grade and the source comes from the bees that are pollinating in British Columbia, within the mountain regions. To make it even clearer, propolis comes from the substances that gets collected by bees from plants and trees resin which they then use to line the hive and protect it against virus and bacteria. I guess we can say that it’s a natural anti biotic.

With this, you don’t have to endure using such bitter or awful tasting medicine and now you might just actually enjoy using this to heal your self from a painful sore throat. All it contains is propolis, GMO-free vegetable glycerin, and purified water...

Tuesday, July 25, 2017

Propolis Component May Help Treat Diabetic Nephropathy

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017 Jun 28;54:80-92. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2017.06.021. [Epub ahead of print]

Metabolomics study of cadmium-induced diabetic nephropathy and protective effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS combined with pattern recognition

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most severe complication of diabetes and multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis of DN. Among them, cadmium (Cd) acts as a risk factor inducing the occurrence of DN.

The present study focused on investigating the protective role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis from honeybee hives, against Cd-induced DN in mice based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS)and pattern recognition. Serum and urine biochemical indexes were detected and histopathological observation has been done to evaluate the damage of Cd on animals. Moreover, the global serum profiles of different groups were distinguished by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied for group differentiation and marker selection. Moreover, the influence of Cd on the oxidative status in DN mice were also evaluated by assessing the parameters of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines and antioxidant competence. As shown in the scores plots, the distinct clustering among controls, DN and CAPE groups were observed, significant changes in serum levels of LysoPC(18:1(11Z)), 2,3-dinor-8-iso-PGF2a, PS(18:1(9Z)/18:1(9Z)), DG(17:0/22:4 (7Z,10Z, 13Z, 16Z)/0:0) and Arachidonic acid(AA) were noted and identified as potential biomarkers, the effect of CAPE reverted them back to near normalcy. Further, It was observed a significant improvement in lipid peroxides (LPO) and protein carbonyls (PCO) levels in Cd-induced DN kidneys along with a significant decline in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, however, CAPE relieved these changes.

In conclusion, the study suggested that the pathogenesis of DN caused by Cd probably owes to the perturbations of lipid metabolism and AA metabolism; CAPE seems to be effective agent and may be related to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties and action as an Nrf2 activator.

Monday, July 24, 2017

Bee Venom Acupuncture May Help Treat Spinal Cord Injuries

Bee Venom Acupuncture Reduces Interleukin-6, Increases Interleukin-10, and Induces Locomotor Recovery in a Model of Spinal Cord Compression

J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2017 Jun;10(3):204-210

Spinal cord injuries (SCIs) initiate a series of molecular and cellular events in which inflammatory responses can lead to major neurological dysfunctions. The present study aims to investigate whether bee venom (BV) acupuncture applied at acupoints ST36 (Zusanli) and GV3 (Yaoyangquan) could minimize locomotor deficits and the magnitude of neural tissue losses, and change the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines after an SCI by compression. Wistar rats were subjected to an SCI model by compression in which a 2-French Fogarty embolectomy catheter was inflated in the extradural space.

The effects of BV acupuncture, in which 20 μL of BV diluted in saline (0.08 mg/kg) was injected at acupoints GV3 and ST36 [BV(ST36+GV3)-SCI] was compared with BV injected at nonacupoints [BV(NP)-SCI] and with no treatment [group subjected only to SCI (CTL-SCI)]. The BV(ST36+GV3)-SCI group showed a significant improvement in the locomotor performance and a decrease of lesion size compared with the controls. BV acupuncture at the ST36 + GV3 increased the expression of interleukin-10 (anti-inflammatory) at 6 hours and reduced the expression of interleukin-6 (proinflammatory) at 24 hours after SCI compared with the controls.

Our results suggest that BV acupuncture can reduce neuroinflammation and induce recovery in the SCI compression model.

Sunday, July 23, 2017

Bee Venom Component May Help Treat Lung Gancer

Melittin exerts an antitumor effect on non‑small cell lung cancer cells

Mol Med Rep. 2017 Jul 14

Lung cancer accounts for a significant percentage of all cancer‑associated mortalities in men and women, with non‑small cell lung cancer being the most frequently occurring type of lung cancer. Melittin is the principal active component of apitoxin (bee venom) that has been reported to exert anti‑chronic inflammatory and anti‑cancer effects. In the present study, the antitumor effect of melittin was evaluated using in vivo and in vitro analyses. The results demonstrated that melittin significantly inhibited the epidermal growth factor‑induced invasion and migration of non‑small cell lung cancer cells. Subcutaneous injection of melittin at doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg significantly suppressed non‑small cell lung cancer tumor growth by 27 and 61%, respectively. In addition, melittin significantly inhibited the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in non‑small cell lung cancer cells. Furthermore, melittin decreased the protein expression of VEGF and hypoxia‑inducible factor 1‑α. Therefore, the antitumor activity of melittin may be associated with the anti‑angiogenic actions of inhibiting the VEGF and hypoxia‑inducible factor signaling pathways.

Saturday, July 22, 2017

Honey Helps Repair Liver Damage

Honey can repairing damage of liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition through induction of endogenous stem cells

Vet World. 2017 Jun;10(6):711-715

AIM:

This study was to evaluate effect of honey in repairing damage of liver tissue due to energy protein malnutrition and in mobilization of endogenous stem cells.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Male mice model of degenerative liver was obtained through food fasting but still have drinking water for 5 days. It caused energy protein malnutrition and damage of liver tissue. The administration of 50% (v/v) honey was performed for 10 consecutive days, while the positive control group was fasted and not given honey and the negative control not fasted and without honey. Observations of regeneration the liver tissue based on histologically examination, observation of Hsp70 expression, and homing signal based on vascular endothelial growth factor-1 (VEGF-1) expression using immunohistochemistry technique. Observation on expression of CD34 and CD45 as the marker of auto mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells using flow cytometry technique.

RESULTS:

There is regeneration of the liver tissue due to protein energy malnutrition, decrease of Hsp70 expression, increase of VEGF-1 expression, and high expression of CD34 and CD45.

CONCLUSION:

Honey can improve the liver tissue based on: (1) Mobilization of endogenous stem cells (CD34 and CD45); (2) Hsp70 and VEGF-1 expressions as regeneration marker of improvement, and (3) regeneration histologically of liver tissue.

Friday, July 21, 2017

OncBioMune Acquires Propolis Product Line for German Partner

(Marketwired - July 20, 2017) - OncBioMune Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (otcqb:OBMP) ("OncBioMune" or the "Company"), a revenue-stage biopharmaceutical company engaged in the development of targeted cancer therapies, a proprietary cancer vaccine technology and commercialization of a portfolio of products internationally, is pleased to announce the acquisition of the rights to six Aagaard® Propolis products for the Mexican markets from the Company's German partner roha Arzneimittel GmbH ("roha"). OncBioMune has begun the process to market the products across Mexico, with expectations for an official launch during the fourth quarter of 2017...

Thursday, July 20, 2017

Tualang Honey Boosts Antioxidant Activity, Protects Against Oxidative Stress

Dose-Response Effect of Tualang Honey on Postprandial Antioxidant Activity and Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes: A Pilot Study

J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Jul 14

OBJECTIVES:

Tualang honey (TH) contains antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, phenolic acids, and flavonoids that may be protective against oxidative stress of exercise. The aim of this study was to examine the postprandial antioxidant activity and oxidative stress after ingestion of high and low dosages of TH in female athletes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Twenty female athletes (aged 21.3 [2.1] years; body weight [BW] 54.1 [5.7] kg) were randomly assigned into two groups and consumed either 1.5 g/kg BW TH (high honey; HH; n = 10) or 0.75 g/kg BW TH (low honey; LH; n = 10). Blood sample was collected at fasting and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 h after TH consumption. Plasma was analyzed for total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP]), and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde [MDA] and reactive oxygen species [ROS]).

RESULTS:

The 3-h area under the curve (AUC) for MDA was significantly lower in the LH group compared with HH group, suggesting less oxidative stress in the LH group. However, the AUCs for TPC, FRAP, and ROS were not affected by the dosages. The concentrations of TPC and FRAP increased from baseline to 2 and 1 h after TH consumption, respectively, and concentrations returned toward baseline at 3 h in both LH and HH groups. MDA concentration significantly decreased (p < 0.05) from baseline to 2 h and significantly increased from 2 to 3 h in the HH group. Meanwhile, ROS levels increased significantly from 0.5 to 3 h in the HH group. The LH group showed similar trends as the HH group for MDA and ROS; however, this was not significant.

CONCLUSIONS:

The consumption of high and low doses of TH demonstrated a comparable response in increasing antioxidant activity and suppressing oxidative stress in female athletes. The time-course effect of TH that provides optimal antioxidant activity and oxidative stress protection was between 1 and 2 h after its consumption.

Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Manuka Better Than Mutifloral Honey in Treating Horse Wounds

Comparison of the effects of topical application of UMF20 and UMF5 manuka honey with a generic multifloral honey on wound healing variables in an uncontaminated surgical equine distal limb wound model

Aust Vet J. 2017 Jul 17. doi: 10.1111/avj.12616. [Epub ahead of print]

OBJECTIVE:

To compare the effect of application of manuka honey with unique manuka factor (UMF) 5 or 20 with a generic multifloral honey on equine wound healing variables.

METHODS:

Two full-thickness skin wounds (2.5 × 2.5 cm) were created on the metatarsus of both hindlimbs of eight Standardbred horses. The wounds on each horse were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: UMF20 (UMF20) and UMF5 (UMF5) manuka honey; generic multifloral honey (GH); and a saline control. Bandages were changed daily for 12 days, after which treatment was stopped and the bandages were removed. Wound area was measured on day 1, then weekly until day 42. Overall wound healing rate (cm2 /day) and time to complete healing were recorded.

RESULTS:

There was no difference in wound area for any of the treatments on any measurement day except for day 21, where the mean wound area for wounds treated with UMF20 was smaller than the mean wound area for the UMF5-treated wounds (P = 0.031). There was no difference in mean (± SE) overall healing rate (cm2 /day) among the treatment groups. There were differences in mean (± SE) days to complete healing. Wounds treated with UMF20 healed faster than wounds treated with GH (P = 0.02) and control wounds (P = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Treatment of wounds with UMF20 reduced overall wound healing time compared with wounds treated with GH and control wounds. However, using this model the difference in the overall time to complete healing was small.

Tuesday, July 18, 2017

Therapeutic Properties of Bioactive Compounds from Different Honeybee Products

Front Pharmacol. 2017 Jun 28;8:412

Honeybees produce honey, royal jelly, propolis, bee venom, bee pollen, and beeswax, which potentially benefit to humans due to the bioactives in them. Clinical standardization of these products is hindered by chemical variability depending on honeybee and botanical sources, but different molecules have been isolated and pharmacologically characterized.

Major honey bioactives include phenolics, methylglyoxal, royal jelly proteins (MRJPs), and oligosaccharides.

In royal jelly there are antimicrobial jelleins and royalisin peptides, MRJPs, and hydroxy-decenoic acid derivatives, notably 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), with antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, neuromodulatory, metabolic syndrome preventing, and anti-aging activities.

Propolis contains caffeic acid phenethyl ester and artepillin C, specific of Brazilian propolis, with antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects.

Bee venom consists of toxic peptides like pain-inducing melittin, SK channel blocking apamin, and allergenic phospholipase A2.

Bee pollen is vitaminic, contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant phenolics, as well as antiatherosclerotic, antidiabetic, and hypoglycemic flavonoids, unsaturated fatty acids, and sterols.

Beeswax is widely used in cosmetics and makeup. Given the importance of drug discovery from natural sources, this review is aimed at providing an exhaustive screening of the bioactive compounds detected in honeybee products and of their curative or adverse biological effects.


Monday, July 17, 2017

Using Honey to Ease Seasonal Allergies

Stuff, 7/14/2017

Dr Shaun Holt, who holds pharmacy and medicine degrees and lectures at Victoria University of Wellington, has long believed in the power of honey.

He co-founded Wellington's HoneyLab, which performs extensive research on bees and develops medical products from the insect. He has taken on the principal investigator role in more than 50 clinical trials.

While Holt has yet to explore honey's potential affect on seasonal allergies and asthma, he said it's a subject he's had a keen eye on for "a while now".

"It makes sense. In theory it should help," he says.

"It's similar to immunisation therapy. Allergy experts will give you a pollen injection but it's just expensive."

Holt said by consuming the bee byproduct, people were "basically building an immunity" by exposing the body to pollens without inhaling it and suffering symptoms.

Dr Shaun Holt, co-founder and scientist at Honeylab, says eating honey could potentially help build up an immunity to pollen without suffering symptoms.

And if patients were to visit him in regards to seasonal allergies, Holt said he would tell them to "give it a go".

"If it helps you, great. If not, then you just had a spoonful of honey a day."...

Sunday, July 16, 2017

Propolis for (Nappy) Diaper Rash

New Zealand Herald

Propolis is a substance collected by honeybees that can be used as a substitute for zinc oxide to protect and heal the delicate skin of baby's bottom. Zinc Oxide is often used in creams of this type but can be harmful with long-term use. Propolis has proven antibacterial and antifungal properties that can help to resolve resistant baby skin problems like fungal infections and thrush.

Saturday, July 15, 2017

Propolis resin from trees antibacterial, antifungal


The Taos News, 7/14/2017

Propolis is a dark brown to red sticky resin that honeybees collect from a variety of trees - including cottonwood, aspen and birch - for use in the beehive. It used to be thought that this resin was used just to seal the cracks and holes in the hive, but it has more recently been discovered that propolis is used by the bees to prevent the growth of mold and bacteria and inhibit the presence of parasites.

People use propolis as a medicine, and research shows that it indeed has antibacterial, antifungal and even antiviral properties. The raw propolis is a bit difficult to use, as it is a sticky lump of resin, but if you can warm it slightly, small pieces can be pulled off and placed into a tooth cavity to create a temporary filling that both seals out the air that causes discomfort and has antiseptic qualities that can help prevent infection.

One of my favorite ways to use this fascinating product from our honeybee friends is as a remedy for the throat. I like to combine an extract of the resin with licorice root, yerba del manzo root and tea tree oil to make a throat spray. This blend has the effect of numbing the pain of the sore tissues and being astringent, antiseptic and antiviral...

Friday, July 14, 2017

Honey, Propolis Component Useful in Disease Management Induced by Toxic Agents


Protective Effects of Chrysin Against Drugs and Toxic Agents

Dose Response. 2017 Jun 23;15(2):1559325817711782

ISSUES:

Polyphenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, are known as the most common chemical class of phytochemicals, which possess a multiple range of health-promoting effects. Flavonoids are ubiquitous in nature. They are also present in food, providing an essential link between diet and prevention of several diseases.

APPROACH:

Chrysin (CH), a natural flavonoid, was commonly found in propolis and honey and traditionally used in herbal medicine. A growing body of scientific evidence has shown that CH possesses protective effects against toxic agents in various animal tissues, including brain, heart, liver, kidney, and lung.

KEY FINDINGS:

This study found that CH may be effective in disease management induced by toxic agents. However, due to the lack of information on human, further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of CH as an antidote agent in human.

CONCLUSION:

The present article aimed to critically review the available literature data regarding the protective effects of CH against toxic agent-induced toxicities as well as its possible mechanisms.

Thursday, July 13, 2017

Chestnut, Cedar, and Pine Honey Kill Breast Cancer Cells

Anatolian honey is not only sweet but can also protect from breast cancer: Elixir for women from artemis to present

IUBMB Life. 2017 Jul 10

Natural products with bioactive components are widely studied on various cancer cell lines for their possible cytotoxic effects, recently. Among these products, honey stands out as a valuable bee product containing many active phenolic compounds and flavonoids.

Numerous types of multifloral honey and honeydew honey are produced in Turkey owing to its abundant vegetation. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of particular tree-originated honeys from chestnut, cedar, pine, and multifloral honey on cell lines representing different types of the most common cancer of women, breast cancer, MCF7, SKBR3, and MDAMB-231, and fibrocystic breast epithelial cell line, MCF10A as a control.

All honey samples were analyzed biochemically. The dose- (1, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 µg/mL) and time (24th, 48th, and 72nd hours)-dependent effects of ethanol/water solutions of the honey samples were scrutinized. Cell viability/cytotoxicity was evaluated by the water soluble tetrazolium Salt-1 (WST-1) method. Apoptotic status was detected by Annexin V-PI assay using FACSCalibur. The statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 6 and the clustering data analysis with the R programming language. The biochemical analyses of the honey samples showed that the tree-originated honey samples contained more total phenolic compounds than the multifloral honey.

Phenolic content of the honey types increases in order of multifloral, pine, cedar, and chestnut, respectively, which is compatible with their cytotoxic affectivity and dark color. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of the studied honey types was observed to increase in order of multifloral < pine < cedar ≅ chestnut. According to the WST-1 data, chestnut honey induced cytotoxicity over 50% on all the cell lines, including the control MCF10A cells, even with low doses (honey concentrations starting from 1 µg/mL) (P < 0.0001). Similarly, Cedar honey was observed to be the second most effective honey in this study. Cedar honey, with the dose of 1 µg/mL, was detected statistically highly significant on MCF10A, MCF7, and SKBR3.

In contrast, pine honey showed dramatically significant cytotoxicity only on the MDAMB 231 cells with a 1 µg/mL dose at the same time point (P = 0.018). While pine honey caused an anticancer effect on the MCF-7 and SKBR3 cancer cell lines with a 2.5-5 µg/mL dose (P < 0.0001), like cedar and chestnut honeys, it increased the viability of the MCF10A control cells with the doses of 2.5-5 µg/mL. It only showed cytotoxicity with higher doses (10 µg/mL) on the MCF10A cell line (P < 0.0001).

Moreover, we have observed that the multifloral and artificial honey samples were mostly ineffective or increased cell viability with the doses of 1-5 µg/mL. Apoptotic effects of the other honey samples on the MCF-7 cell line were found as chestnut> pine> cedar> multifloral in the Annexin V-propidium iodide (PI) analysis.

Chestnut, cedar, and pine honey displayed a remarkably cytotoxic effect on breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, SKBR3, and even on the most aggressive MDAMB 231, representing the triple negative breast cancer, which lacks of targeted anticancer therapy. The chestnut and cedar honeys stand out to be the most cytotoxic on all cell lines, while pine honey was found to be the least toxic on control cells with appropriate toxicity on the cancer cells.

Wednesday, July 12, 2017

Honey Eardrops Help Treat Recurrent Eczematous External Otitis

Treatment of Recurrent Eczematous External Otitis with Honey Eardrops: A Proof-of-Concept Study

Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 Jul 1:194599817718782

Eczematous external otitis is a chronic inflammatory disease and often difficult to treat. Our objective was to investigate the clinical effect and in vitro antibacterial potential of medical honey eardrops as treatment of eczematous external otitis. In a prospective study, 15 patients diagnosed with recurrent eczematous external otitis were treated with medical honey eardrops for 2 weeks.

The following clinical outcomes were evaluated: visual analog scale of ear complaints, score of eczema, and eradication of bacterial infection. Furthermore, the antibacterial effect of honey eardrops against different bacterial strains was tested in vitro.

Treatment resulted in less discomfort and itching and decreased signs of eczema, with high patient satisfaction and without adverse reactions. Honey eardrops showed a strong in vitro inhibitory activity against all tested strains but did not eradicate Staphylococcus aureus infection in vivo.

The results of this preliminary study indicate a possible role of honey eardrops in eczematous ear disease.

Tuesday, July 11, 2017

Indian Propolis Has Anti-Alzheimer's Potential

Neuroprotective effect of Indian propolis in β-amyloid induced memory deficit: Impact on behavioral and biochemical parameters in rats

Biomed Pharmacother. 2017 Jul 4;93:543-553

The study aimed at the investigation of neuroprotective activity of macerated ethanolic extract of Indian propolis (MEEP) against β-Amyloid 25-35 (Aβ25-35) induced memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease. MEEP was administrated orally to Wistar rats at doses of 100, 200 and 300mg/kg. Behavioral performances were evaluated using morris water maze and radial arm maze. At the end of behavioral study, the brains were removed and antioxidant parameters and brain monoamines were estimated. Further acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibition and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) were evaluated. In addition hematological parameters and histopathological tests were also carried out.

In behavioral models, MEEP significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the cognitive impairment of β amyloid-induced rats. The antioxidant potential was significantly increased (P < 0.05) after administration of MEEP. Malondialdehyde levels were significantly (P < 0.01) decreased in brain homogenate after treatment with MEEP extract as compared with diseased control group (group III). MEEP showed dose-dependent AChE inhibition and increased the levels of brain monoamines (P < 0.05) as compared with group III. MEEP improved memory deficits by increasing BDNF in plasma (P < 0.05).

The study concludes that MEEP has anti-Alzheimer potential in rats through multiple mechanisms and further studies are ongoing for fractionation and biological screening.

Monday, July 10, 2017

Review of Use of Bee Venom and Propolis for Wound Healing


Wound healing: time to look for intelligent, 'natural' immunological approaches?


BMC Immunol. 2017 Jun 21;18(Suppl 1):23

There is now good evidence that cytokines and growth factors are key factors in tissue repair and often exert anti-infective activities. However, engineering such factors for global use, even in the most remote places, is not realistic. Instead, we propose to examine how such factors work and to evaluate the reparative tools generously provided by 'nature.'

We used two approaches to address these objectives. The first approach was to reappraise the internal capacity of the factors contributing the most to healing in the body, i.e., blood platelets. The second was to revisit natural agents such as whey proteins, (honey) bee venom and propolis. The platelet approach elucidates the inflammation spectrum from physiology to pathology, whereas milk and honey derivatives accelerate diabetic wound healing. Thus, this review aims at offering a fresh view of how wound healing can be addressed by natural means.

Sunday, July 09, 2017

Gelam Honey Helps Treat Eye Injuries

The Potential of Gelam Honey in Promoting the Proliferative Phase of Corneal Reepithelialization

Wounds. 2017 Jun 28

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study is to investigate the potential benefits of Gelam honey (GH) in promoting proliferation of ex vivo cor-neal epithelial cells (CECs) and its effects on the phenotypical features.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Corneal epithelial cells were isolated from the corneas of rabbits (n = 6). The optimal dose of GH for CEC proliferation in both basal medium (BM) and cornea medium (CM) was determined via MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethyl thiazolyl-2]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bro- mide) assay. Morphology, gene and protein expressions, and cell cycle analysis of CECs were evaluated via phase contrast microscopy, real- time polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, and ow cytometry, respectively.

RESULTS:

Corneal epithelial cells cultured in 0.0015% GH-supplemented media (BM + 0.0015% GH; CM + 0.0015% GH) demonstrated optimal proliferative capacity with normal polygonal- shaped morphology. Gelam honey potentiates cytokeratin 3 (CK3) gene expression in accordance with the cytoplasmic CK3 protein expression while retaining normal cell cycle of CECs.

CONCLUSION:

Culture media treated with 0.0015% GH increased CEC proliferation while preserving its phenotypical features. This study demonstrated the potential development of GH-based topical treatment for superficial corneal injury.

Saturday, July 08, 2017

Allergists Scramble to Deal with Venom Extract Shortage

Ventura County Star, 7/7/2017

Ventura County allergists say they've eased the sting of a shortage of an extract used to prevent severe allergic reactions to bees, hornets and wasps.

The extract invokes the hair of the dog theory, made of the venom of the very insect that triggers a person's allergies...

Friday, July 07, 2017

Manuka Honey Can Comprehensively Kill Common Pathogens Associated with Infected Wounds


Comprehensive In Situ Killing of Six Common Wound Pathogens With Manuka Honey Dressings Using a Modified AATCC-TM100

Wounds. 2017 Jun 28. pii: WNDS20170628-1

OBJECTIVE:

While Manuka honey in vitro is strongly antimicrobial, there have been, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no studies showing that dressings impregnated with Manuka honey can kill organisms in the dressing itself.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The investigators used the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists' 100 test methodology to compare honey-impregnated dressings with control dressings (without honey) on the ability to kill common wound pathogens. Organisms were chosen after a review of the causal organisms found in actual wound infections over a 12-month period in a busy outpatient wound clinic.

RESULTS:

Even when the dressings were challenged daily with further inoculated organisms, > 5-log reductions were routinely noted across a range of pathogens, including multiple drug-resistant species using dressings containing Manuka honey relative to the control.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results presented herein show that when well-characterized medical-grade Manuka honey is used in dressings (ie, a minimum of 400 mg methylglyoxal/kg) these dressings can comprehensively kill common wound pathogens associated with infected wounds.

OBJECTIVE:

While Manuka honey in vitro is strongly antimicrobial, there have been, to the best of the authors' knowledge, no studies showing that dressings impregnated with Manuka honey can kill organisms in the dressing itself.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

The investigators used the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists' 100 test methodology to compare honey-impregnated dressings with control dressings (without honey) on the ability to kill common wound pathogens. Organisms were chosen after a review of the causal organisms found in actual wound infections over a 12-month period in a busy outpatient wound clinic.

RESULTS:

Even when the dressings were challenged daily with further inoculated organisms, > 5-log reductions were routinely noted across a range of pathogens, including multiple drug-resistant species using dressings containing Manuka honey relative to the control.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results presented herein show that when well-characterized medical-grade Manuka honey is used in dressings (ie, a minimum of 400 mg methylglyoxal/kg) these dressings can comprehensively kill common wound pathogens associated with infected wounds.

Thursday, July 06, 2017

Gelam Honey Promotes Corneal Healing

The Potential of Gelam Honey in Promoting the Proliferative Phase of Corneal Reepithelialization

Wounds. 2017 Jun 28. pii: WNDS20170628-2

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study is to investigate the potential bene ts of Gelam honey (GH) in promoting proliferation of ex vivo cor- neal epithelial cells (CECs) and its effects on the phenotypical features.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Corneal epithelial cells were isolated from the corneas of rabbits (n = 6). The optimal dose of GH for CEC proliferation in both basal medium (BM) and cornea medium (CM) was determined via MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethyl thiazolyl-2]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bro- mide) assay. Morphology, gene and protein expressions, and cell cycle analysis of CECs were evaluated via phase contrast microscopy, real- time polymerase chain reaction, immunocytochemistry, and ow cytom- etry, respectively.

RESULTS:

Corneal epithelial cells cultured in 0.0015% GH-supplemented media (BM + 0.0015% GH; CM + 0.0015% GH) demonstrated optimal proliferative capacity with normal polygonal- shaped morphology. Gelam honey potentiates cytokeratin 3 (CK3) gene expression in accordance with the cytoplasmic CK3 protein expression while retaining normal cell cycle of CECs.

CONCLUSION:

Culture media treated with 0.0015% GH increased CEC proliferation while preserving its phenotypical features. This study demonstrated the potential devel- opment of GH-based topical treatment for super cial corneal injury.

Wednesday, July 05, 2017

Stingless Bee Propolis Shows Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Effects

Propolis Extracted from the Stingless Bee Trigona sirindhornae Inhibited S. mutans Activity In Vitro

Oral Health Prev Dent. 2017;15(3):279-284

The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial effects of propolis extracted from an endemic species of stingless bee, T. sirindhornae, on the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Dichloromethane extracts (DME) of propolis (DMEP) were prepared and analysed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The antibacterial growth and antibiofilm formation effects of DMEP on S. mutans were compared with those of apigenin, a commercial propolis product. The effects of DMEP and apigenin on glucosyltransferase (gtf) B expression in S. mutans were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Chlorhexidine (CHX) was used as a positive control in the experiments.

RESULTS:

Apigenin, pinocembrin, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were not detected in the propolis extracts. DMEP and apigenin significantly inhibited S. mutans growth (IC50 = 43.5 and 17.36 mg/ml, respectively). DMEP and apigenin also exhibited antiadherence effects on S. mutans as shown by reduced biofilm formation. Furthermore, a significant inhibition in gtfB expression was observed in DMEP and apigenin treated S. mutans.

CONCLUSION:

Propolis produced by T. sirindhornae demonstrated antibacterial and antibiofilm effects, and reduced gtfB expression in S. mutans. The antibacterial activities of propolis observed were not due to apigenin, pinocembrin, p-coumaric acid, or caffeic acid.

Tuesday, July 04, 2017

Bee Venom Component May Help Treat Lung Cancer

Melittin suppresses tumor progression by regulating tumor-associated macrophages in a Lewis lung carcinoma mouse model

Oncotarget. 2017 Jun 27

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) are a major component of tumor stroma. It has been reported that TAMs have M2-like phenotype and facilitate tumor progression by promoting angiogenesis and immunosuppression. Melittin, a major polypeptide of bee venom, has been widely studied as an anti-cancer drug due to its cytotoxicity to malignant cells. However, very little is known regarding the effect of melittin on immune cells in the tumor microenvironment.

This study focuses on the effect of melittin on TAMs in a Lewis lung carcinoma mouse model. Melittin inhibited the rapid tumor growth compared to the control in vivo. Melittin increased the M1/M2 ratio of TAMs by selectively reducing the number of CD206+ M2-like TAMs while not altering the population of CD86+ M1-like TAMs. Melittin also preferentially binds to M2 macrophages, and this binding was not associated with phagocytosis. Gene and protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) and mannose receptor C type 1 (Mrc1/CD206) was reduced in M2-like bone marrow-derived macrophages by melittin treatment, but there was no significant change in the gene level of Vegf and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 (Flt1/VEGFR1) in tumor cells in vitro. Additionally, the levels of VEGF and CD31, markers of angiogenesis, were significantly decreased by melittin treatment in tumor tissues.

This study revealed a novel role for melittin in tumor treatment and suggested that melittin could be a promising therapeutic agent for targeting M2-like TAMs.

Monday, July 03, 2017

Use of Honey by Those with Diabetes

Honey and diabetes mellitus: Obstacles and challenges - Road to be repaired

Saudi J Biol Sci. 2017 Jul;24(5):1030-1033

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:

Since ancient times, honey has been used due to its nutritional and therapeutic value. The role of honey has been acknowledged in the scientific literature however, its use has been controversially discussed and has not been well accepted in modern medicine especially for diabetic patients. This study aimed to investigate the role of honey in diabetic patients.

METHODS:

In this study, we identified 107 research articles from data based search engines including "PubMed", "ISI-Web of Science", "Embase" and "Google Scholar". The research papers were selected by using the primary key-terms including "Honey", "Honey bee" and "Diabetes Mellitus". The research documents in which "Honey" and "Diabetes Mellitus" were debated are included. After screening, we reviewed 66 papers and finally we selected 35 studies which met the inclusion criteria and the remaining documents were excluded.

RESULTS:

This study investigated the preclinical, clinical, human and animal model studies on honey and diabetes mellitus and found that honey decreases the fasting serum glucose, increases the sting C-peptide and 2-h postprandial C-peptide. Although, there is a dearth of data and literature also contrary discussed the use of honey in diabetic patients.

CONCLUSION:

Honey decreases the fasting serum glucose, increases fasting C-peptide and 2-h postprandial C-peptide. Honey had low glycemic index and peak incremental index in diabetic patients. The use of honey in diabetic patients still has obstacles and challenges and needs more large sample sized, multi-center clinical controlled studies to reach better conclusions.

Friday, June 30, 2017

Medicinal Honey from Western Australia Set to Rival Manuka

ABC, 6/28/2017

A new honey certification in Western Australia aims to compete with New Zealand Manuka honey. (Supplied: Melbourne Museum)
Scientists have developed a process to certify West Australian honey with medicinal and antimicrobial properties, which will rival New Zealand's famous Manuka honey.

The new certification process, developed by industry and food testing laboratory ChemCentre and funded by a $500,000 State Government grant, will now be able to authenticate WA honey with medicinal properties.

Honey that comes from jarrah and marri trees, which are unique to WA, are known as monofloral honeys and have been found to have some of the highest antimicrobial activity in the world...

Thursday, June 29, 2017

If modern medicine is unable to help you, try Bee Venom Therapy (BVT)…you have little to lose.

BEE CULTURE, June 26, 2017

The use of honey bee products for healing and health (known as Apitherapy) has been in use since ancient times, however, the most attention grabbing apitherapy treatment today tends to be the use of bee stings to reduce disease symptoms. The use of BVT for rheumatic diseases has been recognized for at least 2500 years. (Broadman 1962)  While the majority of therapeutically applied bee venom is through injection in the form of desensitization shots for people suffering from hyper-allergic reactions to honey bee venom (anaphylaxis), anyone with access to a hive can obtain venom from the self-contained, self-sterilizing, self-injecting bee venom applicators living within.

An evolving experimental treatment

While bee venom injections are not yet approved by the medical establishment for use treating rheumatic diseases, the sting from the live bee is often used and found helpful for this purpose. Treatment typically consists of applications of bee stings three times a week, about every other day. Treatments are applied over the body on a rotating basis so that a former treatment area is not treated again until all symptoms of the previous stings have healed.  This form of BVT is available almost anywhere and, as long as the patient is not hyper-allergic, the treatment is safe without long-term adverse effects even with long-term application of therapeutic doses.

No one has worked as long or as hard to promote the benefits of BVT as Charles Mraz who is recognized the dean of the therapeutic use of bee venom in the United States.  Not only did Mraz initiate clinical research in conjunction with the scientists at Sloan-Kettering and the Walter Reed Army Institutes, he developed the USDA purity standard for dried whole venom and supplied venom to pharmaceutical companies worldwide. He went on to become a co-founder of the American Apitherapy Society (AAS): a clearing house for information on apitherapy, which to this day dedicates itself to carrying on Mraz’s legacy by educating the public and health care community about the traditional, clinical and scientifically proven uses of apitherapy...

Wednesday, June 28, 2017

Bee Venom May Help Treat Cancer

Biodegradable nanoparticles loaded with tetrameric melittin: preparation and membrane disruption evaluation

Gen Physiol Biophys. 2016 Jun 27

Melittin is the main component of bee venom consisting of 26 amino acids that has multiple effects, including antibacterial, antiviral and anti-inflammatory in various cell types. This peptide forms pores in biological membranes and triggers cell death. Therefore it has potential as an anti-cancer therapy.

However, the therapeutic application of melittin is limited due to its main side effect, hemolysis, which is especially pronounced following intravenous administration. In the present study, we formulated tetrameric melittin-carrying poly-D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA-NPs) and analyzed the lytic activity of this system on liposomes that resembles breast cancer cells. Tetrameric melittin binds avidly to PLGA-NPs with an encapsulation efficiency of 97% and retains its lytic activity demonstrating the effectiveness of PLGA-NPs as nanocarriers for this cytolytic peptide.

Tuesday, June 27, 2017

Chestnut Honey Impregnated Hydrogel Boosts Diabetic Ulcer Healing

Chestnut Honey Impregnated Carboxymethyl Cellulose Hydrogel for Diabetic Ulcer Healing

Polymers 2017, 9(7), 248

Honey-based wound dressings have attracted a lot of attention from modern scientists owing to their anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects without antibiotic resistance. Such dressings also promote moist wound healing, and have been considered natural, abundant, and cheap materials for folk marketing.

This study investigated the various behaviors and characteristics of chestnut honey-impregnated carboxymethyl cellulose sodium hydrogel paste (CH–CMC) as a therapeutic dressing, such as its moist retention, antibacterial activity for inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and the rate of wound healing in db/db mice.

The results provide good evidence, suggesting that CH–CMC has potential as a competitive candidate for diabetic ulcer wound healing.

Monday, June 26, 2017

Diluted Bee Venom Acupuncture Helps Treat Arthritis Pain

Analgesic Effects of Diluted Bee Venom Acupuncture Mediated by δ-Opioid and α2-Adrenergic Receptors in Osteoarthritic Rats

Altern Ther Health Med. 2017 Jun 23

Context • Pain from osteoarthritis is associated with peripheral nociception and central pain processing. Given the unmet need for innovative, effective, and well-tolerated therapies, many patients, after looking for more satisfactory alternatives, decide to use complementary and alternative modalities. The analgesic mechanism of subcutaneous injections of diluted bee venom into an acupoint is thought to be part of an anti-inflammatory effect and the central modulation of pain processing.

Objectives • Using the rat model of collagenase-induced osteoarthritis (CIOA), the study intended to investigate the analgesic effects of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) as they are related to the acupuncture points and dosage used and to determine whether the analgesic mechanisms of BVA for pain were mediated by opioid or adrenergic receptors.

Design • Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of 19 groups, with n = 10 for each group.

Setting • The study was conducted at the East-West Bone and Joint Research Institute at Kyung Hee University (Seoul, South Korea).

Intervention • All rats were intra-articularly injected with collagenase solution in the left knee, followed by a booster injection performed 4 d after the first injection. For the groups receiving BVA treatments, the treatment was administered into the ST-36 acupoint, except for 1 group that received the treatment into a nonacupoint. Three BVA intervention groups received no pretreatment with agonists or antagonists; 1 of them received a dose of 1 mg/kg of bee venom into acupoint ST-36, 1 received a dose of 2 mg/kg into acupoint ST-36, and 1 received a dose of 1 mg/kg into a nonacupoint location. For the intervention groups receiving pretreatments, the opioid-receptor or adrenergic-receptor agonists or antagonists were injected 20 min before the 1-mg/kg BVA treatments.

Outcome Measures • Changes in the rats' pain thresholds were assessed by evaluation of pain-related behavior, using a tail flick latency unit.

Results • The pain reached its maximum value after 4 wk of CIOA induction. The 1-mg/kg ST-36 BVA treatment resulted in a more significant analgesic effect than nonacupoint BVA. Pain-related behavior was more effectively improved by treatment with 1 mg/kg of BVA than with 2 mg/kg of BVA. The analgesic effects of the BVA were not synergistic with the agonist pretreatments with the μ-, δ-, or κ-opioid receptors or with the α1-, α2-, and β-adrenergic receptors. The analgesic effects of the BVA were not decreased by the antagonist pretreatments for the μ- or κ-opioid receptors or for the α1- or β-adrenergic receptors. The ST-36-BVA-induced analgesia was inhibited by the antagonist pretreatments for the δ-opioid receptor and the α2-adrenergic receptor.

Conclusion • The ST-36 BVA treatment exerted an analgesic effect on CIOA-induced pain through the partial involvement of the δ-opioid and α2-adrenergic receptors.

Sunday, June 25, 2017

Propolis Mouthwash Shows Antibacterial Action

Microbiological control and antibacterial action of a propolis-containing mouthwash and control of dental plaque in humans

Nat Prod Res. 2017 Jun 23:1-5

Propolis is a bee product with several biological properties. This study aimed at investigating a propolis-containing mouthwash, its organoleptic properties, microbial contamination and its antibacterial action in vitro. This mouthwash was assessed in vivo to control dental plaque in humans. The presence of microorganisms was analyzed and the minimum inhibitory concentration against Streptococcus mutans was determined.

A comparative study was done in vivo using propolis, chlorhexidine, and propolis plus chlorhexidine in lower concentrations for 14 days. Dental plaque was analyzed by the Patient Hygiene Performance (PHP) index. The odontological product was yellow, cloudy, free of microbial contamination, and exerted an inhibitory action in vitro. Individuals who used a propolis-containing mouthwash for 14 consecutive days in combination or not to chlorhexidine showed a similar PHP index to chlorhexidine alone.

The product exerted an antibacterial action in vitro and in vivo, exhibiting a positive action in the control of dental plaque.

Saturday, June 24, 2017

Ecuadorian Propolis Inhibits Leishmania amazonensis Growth

Chemical profile and anti-leishmanial activity of three Ecuadorian propolis samples from Quito, Guayaquil and Cotacachi regions

Fitoterapia. 2017 Jun 19. pii: S0367-326X(17)30545-2

Three propolis samples were collected from different regions of Ecuador (Quito, Guayaquil and Cotacachi) and their methanolic extracts were prepared. Preliminary information supplied by TLC and NMR data, allowed us to define two main types of propolis: Cotacachi propoli sample (CPS), rich in flavonoids and Quito and Guayaquil samples (QPS and GPS) containing triterpenic alcohols and acetyl triterpenes as the main constituents. Two different approaches based on RP-HPLC preparative procedure and NMR structural determination (CPS) and GC-MS analysis (QPS and GPS) were successfully used for the chemical characterization of their major compounds.

All three propolis extracts were able to inhibit Leishmania amazonensis growth but propolis sample rich in flavonoids was the most active (IC50=17.1±1.7μg/mL). In the literature this is the first study on propolis from Ecuador.

Friday, June 23, 2017

Anti-Ageing Effect of Propolis

Polyphenol profile by UHPLC-MS/MS, anti-glycation, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of several samples of propolis from the northeastern semi-arid region of Brazil

Pharm Biol. 2017 Dec;55(1):1884-1893

CONTEXT:

Propolis has promising biological activities. Propolis samples from the Northeast of Bahia, Brazil - sample A from Ribeira do Pombal and B, from Tucano - were investigated, with new information regarding their biological activities.

OBJECTIVE:

This paper describes the chemical profile, antioxidant, anti-glycation and cytotoxic activities of these propolis samples.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

Ethanol extracts of these propolis samples (EEP) and their fractions were analyzed to determine total phenolic content (TPC); antioxidant capacity through DPPH•, FRAP and lipid peroxidation; anti-glycation activity, by an in vitro glucose (10 mg/mL) bovine serum albumine (1 mg/mL) assay, during 7 d; cytotoxic activity on cancer (SF295, HCT-116, OVCAR-8, MDA-MB435, MX-1, MCF7, HL60, JURKAT, MOLT-4, K562, PC3, DU145) and normal cell lines (V79) at 0.04-25 μg/mL concentrations, for 72 h. The determination of primary phenols by ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and volatile organic compounds content by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were also performed.

RESULTS:

The EEP polar fractions exhibited up to 90% protection against lipid peroxidation. The IC50 value for anti-glycation activity of EEP was between 16.5 and 19.2 μg/mL, close to aminoguanidine (IC50 = 7.7 μg/mL). The use of UHPLC-MS/MS and GC-MS allowed the identification of 12 bioactive phenols in the EEP and 24 volatile compounds, all already reported.

CONCLUSIONS:

The samples present good antioxidant/anti-glycation/cytotoxic activities and a plethora of biologically active compounds. These results suggest a potential role of propolis in targeting ageing and diseases associated with oxidative and carbonylic stress, aggregating value to them.